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Congenital Heart Disease

Congenital heart disease is the most common type of birth defect. It affects blood flow through the heart and to the rest of the body.

Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a condition that affects the heart’s structure and function at birth. It can cause structural abnormalities in the heart and affect its ability to function properly. It is a type of heart defect that occurs in about 1% of all live births worldwide.

Types And Causes Of Congenital Heart Disease

While the exact causes of congenital heart disease are not always clear, certain risk factors can increase the likelihood of developing this condition. These factors include genetics, maternal infections during pregnancy and exposure to certain environmental factors.

There are many types of CHD, including the following ones:

●  Atrial septal defects (ASD): ASD is a hole in the wall between the heart’s two upper chambers. 

●  Ventricular septal defects (VSD): VSD is a hole in the wall between the heart’s two lower chambers.

●  Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA): PDA is a blood vessel that fails to close shortly after birth.

●  Pulmonary stenosis: It is a defect of the pulmonary valve in which the valve narrows, causing obstructed flow.

●  Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF): It is the combination of sour specific cardiac defects:

          1 | VSD.

          2 | Pulmonary stenosis.

          3 | Right ventricular hypertrophy.

          4 | Overriding aorta: the aortic valve sits directly on top of the ventricular septal defect.

All these defects can cause problems with blood flow through the heart. Therefore, they can lead to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue and chest pain. These blood flow problems often lead to poor growth, too.

CHD can also cause more severe symptoms such as cyanosis (bluish skin), heart failure and even sudden death.

Diagnosis And Treatment

Diagnosis of congenital heart disease typically involves physical exams, medical history reviews and imaging tests such as echocardiograms. Treatment options vary depending on the type and severity of the condition, but may include medications or even surgery.

Early detection and treatment of congenital heart disease can greatly improve outcomes and quality of life for affected individuals. Regular check-ups with a cardiologist are recommended to monitor the condition and ensure that any necessary treatment is provided.

In sum, CHD is a common condition that affects the heart’s structure and function at birth. It can cause a range of symptoms, from mild to severe, and requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. With proper management, many people with CHD can lead full and healthy lives. Understanding the risk factors and symptoms of congenital heart disease is important for ensuring timely diagnosis and treatment.


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